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What is laser crystal?

The VUV, UV and IR grade MgF2 optics converts the energy provided by the outside into an optical cavity that is spatially and temporally coherent with a highly parallel and monochromatic laser. It is the working substance of a crystal laser. The laser crystal consists of two parts: the illuminating center and the matrix crystal. The luminescence center of most laser crystals is composed of activated ions, and the activated ions partially replace the cations in the matrix crystal to form a doped laser crystal. When the activated ions become part of the matrix crystal component, they constitute a self-activated low-cost plano/spherical/aspherical/cylindrical MgF2 optics.
The activated ions used in the laser crystal are mainly transition metal ions and trivalent rare earth ions. The optical electron of the transition metal ion is the 3d electron in the outer layer. In the crystal, the optical electron is directly affected by the surrounding crystal field, so the spectral characteristics of the crystal of different structure types are greatly different. The 4f electrons of the trivalent rare earth ions are shielded by the 5s and 5p outer electrons, which weakens the effect of the crystal field, but the perturbation of the crystal field makes the 4f electronic transition, which is originally forbidden, possible, resulting in narrow band absorption and fluorescence. Spectral line. Therefore, the spectrum of trivalent rare earth ions in different crystals is not as large as that of transition metal ions.
The matrix crystals used in laser crystals are mainly oxides and fluorides. As a matrix crystal, in addition to its physicochemical properties, it is easy to grow large-size crystals with good optical uniformity, and it is inexpensive, but its adaptability to activated ions, such as the radius of the matrix cation and activated ions, and electronegativity, should be considered. Sex and valence should be as close as possible. In addition, the effect of the host crystal field on the activation ion spectrum is also considered. For some special-purpose matrix crystals, the activation of ions can directly produce lasers with certain characteristics. For example, in some nonlinear crystals, the activated ions generate laser light and can be directly converted into harmonic output through the matrix crystal.
The activated ions used in the wholesale large size infrared Silicon optics are mainly transition metal ions and trivalent rare earth ions. The optical electron of the transition metal ion is the 3d electron in the outer layer. In the crystal, the optical electron is directly affected by the surrounding crystal field, so the spectral characteristics of the crystal of different structure types are greatly different. The 4f electrons of the trivalent rare earth ions are shielded by the 5s and 5p outer electrons, which weakens the effect of the crystal field, but the perturbation of the crystal field makes the 4f electronic transition, which is originally forbidden, possible, resulting in narrow band absorption and fluorescence. Spectral line. Therefore, the spectrum of trivalent rare earth ions in different crystals is not as large as that of transition metal ions.

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