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Thyroid gland, located in your neck, only before the windpipe and voice box, is an essential gland which regulates the energy consumption and metabolism of the body.

add natural remedyThe thyroid gland controls how much food is burnt or metabolized and simply how much energy is generated and used in the cells of your body particularly the heart and the brain.

The thyroid gland controls the metabolism of the body by secreting two important hormones:

T3 (the active type), also called Triiodothyronine
T4 (the inactive form), which is more frequently called Thyroxine.

Thyroid hormones control the metabolism and rate of growth and have become important in the development of many organs of the body.

Thyroid Hormones

Creation of Thyroid Hormones

The Thyroid gland produces its two primary hormones by using the amino acid tyrosine and the mineral iodine. To start with, tyrosine is synthesized in the follicular cells of thyroid and is attached to a protein called Thyroglobulin. Then, iodine is trapped in the thyroid gland and is attached to tyrosine forming iodinated tyrosine. When thyroid is stimulated to secrete hormones, specific enzymes break down iodinated tyrosine from Thyroglobulin to form T4, and from T4, T3 is produced. T4 has four iodinated tyrosine molecules while T3 has three. About 80% of thyroid hormones are T4 while 20% is T3.

Requisites of Thyroid Gland

The thyroid gland is an organ which has an extremely extensive blood supply to meet its nutritional necessities and also to spread the thyroid hormones to all cells of the body. The thyroid gland requires iodine to secrete its hormones.

Iodine is the most critical nutritional requirement of the thyroid gland to function and without which no thyroid hormones can be created. The body gets its Iodine from diet, thus if you are unable to get Iodine in your daily diet, the creation of thyroid hormones will soon be effected.

How Thyroid Hormones Work?

Thyroid hormones have an alternative style of action than other hormones of the body. These hormones enter the cells and reach the nucleus of the cells. There, they activate genes that promote creation of proteins and enzymes that promote metabolism in the cells. The thyroid also activate genes that make and boost creation of mitochondria that is the station of the cell. And thus increase the energy consumption of the body.

Thyroid hormones play a significant part in the maturation of the brain cells and so are significant in the standard growth and progression of the body. Thyroid hormones also regulate hunger and encourage fat burning and food consumption of the body by raising the energy expenditure and raising body temperature.

Regulation of Thyroid Function

Thyroid is an important endocrine gland and hence is regulated quite closely and its secretions are controlled by the pituitary gland as well as the hypothalamus which can be found in the brain.

When thyroid gland is not producing enough hormones the metabolism and energy production of the body is decreased. In the other hand, when the thyroid gland is producing an excessive amount of hormones the opposite occurs. This decline or increase is found by the hypothalamus plus it creates thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) correctly. A lot of thyroid hormone will decrease TRH production and too little thyroid function increases the TRH production. The thyrotropin releasing hormone acts on the pituitary gland and stimulates it to secrete a hormone called Thyroid Stimulating Hormone or TSH. This hormone acts directly on the thyroid gland and stimulate it to secrete both thyroid hormones. This is the way the release of thyroid hormones is closely regulated and too little or too much thyroid hormone generation is controlled by both, the hypothalamus and also the pituitary gland.

Effects of Thyroid Hormones

As mentioned before, thyroid hormones modulate the metabolism of the body. The thyroid do that by increasing the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. By increasing mitochondria and by other processes that utilize these products for energy production. This increased use of fats, proteins and carbohydrates raises the basal metabolic rate and temperature of the body.

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dinner ideas quick and easyThyroid hormones also regulate the growth of bones in the body as well as growth hormone. Without thyroid hormones the bone development doesn’t take place and that’s the reason patients who suffer from congenital hypothyroidism, also referred to as Cretinism, don’t grow much in height. Bone growth and maturation cannot take place minus the participation of thyroid hormones.

Thyroid hormones additionally take part in neuronal maturation in addition to the growth and proper function of nerves in the mind and other regions of the body.

Thyroid hormones affect the body’s reaction to catecholamines like adrenaline and therefore causing an improvement in their own function. Adrenaline increases heart rate and body’s preparedness for sympathetic reaction of fight or flight during crises and tension. Therefore a healthy thyroid gland is important for the body’s reaction to pressure and threat scenarios.

Thyroid hormones help in the appropriate use of vitamins by the body. Vitamins play a crucial role in the reactions that occur in the body. Without thyroid hormones these vitamins will be unable to drive the vital chemical processes in the body.

Thyroid is an important gland of the body. Any change in its function produces drastic influences on the entire body by effecting metabolism, growth and energy creation. Too little of thyroid hormone can be as bad as too much of it.

What is Hypothyroidism?

Hypothyroidism derives from the word -hypo, meaning less and -thyroidism, which refers to thyroid hormones. Consequently, hypothyroidism is a condition in which the body is unable to create enough thyroid hormones for the standard operation of the body.

Hypothyroidism is a disease in which the thyroid gland isn’t able to make normal quantities of thyroid hormones and thus the result is reduced metabolism, diminished development and feeling of lack of energy and exhaustion.

As you remember from the final section, the thyroid gland is controlled by the pituitary gland along with the hypothalamus. Hence a flaw in any of these glands also can cause hypothyroidism.

Forms of Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism is classified according to the organ which is causing it. The various kinds are termed as Primary, Secondary and Tertiary hypothyroidism.

Primary Hypothyroidism

Primary Hypothyroidism refers to that form of hypothyroidism which is caused due to some disease of the thyroid gland that keeps it from creating the thyroid hormones. This includes Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, an autoimmune disease where the immune system attacks the thyroid gland and damages its cells. Radioiodine treatment for hyperthyroidism can cause excessive harm to the cells of thyroid gland and might lead to hypothyroidism.

Secondary Hypothyroidism

Secondary hypothyroidism diet is due to a disorder of the pituitary gland. Pituitary gland secretes the thyroid stimulating hormone which is necessary for normal function of the thyroid gland. If the pituitary gland has some disease, tumour or is damaged by operation, it’s going to result in impaired formation of thyroid stimulating hormone and so reduced production of thyroid hormones.

Tertiary Hypothyroidism

Tertiary Hypothyroidism is caused by inadequate synthesis of thyrotropin releasing hormone from the Hypothalamus, which controls the pituitary and in turn controls the thyroid gland function.

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